Thursday, December 5, 2019

Wildlife in Kashmir free essay sample

The highest, youngest largest chain of mountains in the world, the Himalayan range is one of the most fascinating and spectacular natrual wonders on earth.It is more than that : it is one of the richest store of animal life.For instance,it is remarkable that almost one third of the worlds mammalian species that may be called true mountain animals are native to these mountains. Jammu and kasmir with its variety of geographical regions, climates and vegetation has many delights to offer the wildlife enthusiast. Perphas no animal better epitomises the character and concerns of the mountain environment than the snow leopard, a beautiful and elusive survivor from the frigid Pleistocene era. Though its range is immense, extending over the entire Himalayan range, it is most advantageously sought in jammu and kashmir especially in the high ranges. Another rare animal is the hangul or Kashmir stag,one of the most endangered species of red deer in the world. An enigmatic mammal is the bharal;the controversy over whether it is a shep or a goat is not yet settled.Many unique species of antelope,goat and sheep are found in the state. In winter high-altitude bird species move to the lower valleys and into the tourists purview.Cinnamon sparrows,the black and yellow grosbeak,black bulbuls and monal pheasants(the male splendidly coloured) may be seen now.At this time,too large troops of the impressive Himalayan gray langur visit for the duration. But nothing strikes the eye and imagination so much as in spring and summer,when the long foothills and deep valleys awake to life.Now also awakes the imposing Himalayan black bear and as the winter avifauna return to higher quarters the birds of the summer return.Among these is the lovely golden oriole.The langurs and hangful,too make thier way to higher valleys that are not however inaccessible. Though wildlife conservation in Ladakh began fairly recently,there is much here that is not found in the lower ranges.Ladakhs ecosystem,lying at the confluence of three zoogeographic zones, is fascinating and uniquely varied.A dozen important mammals and over 100 species of birds make their home in this rugged terain most of them,though endangered or rare. The wild yak is native only to this area. Other animals  include the ibex, blue sheep, bharal, docile marmot and mouse hare.The snow leopard roams here too;so does the wild horse and the rare musk deer inhabits lower altitudes.Unfortunately some species are still outside the tourists domain. Jammu and the Kashmir valley, however have led wildlife conservation efforts.Several National Parks and Sanctuaries have been established in the state Natural impressions of Dal Lake Dal Lake much visited and less understood provides us with classic example of how little we appreciate the good things provided to us by Nature. This once pure lake could turn into a polluted pond , if we unthinkingly allow soil erosion and untreated effluents to damage it. Thousands of residents of Srinagar and millions of tourists are depandent upon the lake either for livelihood or for enjoyment. The lake of course is popular for its Houseboats ,Shikaras and promenades and it is undoubtedly a bird watchers paradise.. Slowly as the Shikara passes through the channels in Srinagar the houseboats pass by which are handled by even the children with great dexterity. The birds in this lake are very approachable. The kingfishers sit on the tops of houseboats nonchalantly almost within the touching distance of humans who seem to be equally unmindful of the birds. The kingfishers apparently use walls, steps and piles as fixed perches from which they directly dive into water to catch little fish.In Europe these birds are very elusive but in the happy valley of Kashmir they fear no danger from humans. Man and Nature seem to exist happly together in the Valley. Sitting on low boats i.e. Shikaras we can manoeuvre close to waders,raptors and divers. While giding on Shikara we can often observe white breastedKingfishers(Halycon smyrnensis), large striking birds with robust bills perched on the branches of willow trees. These birds concentrate their efforts to hunting on the floating Gardens. These man made islands comprise of reeds, willow rods, aquatic vegetations and and held together with humus consisting of mud from the lake bottom. This is extremely fertile and provide rich source of food in the form of frogs,lizards,mice, grasshoppers and other insects to the Kingfisher. Now as we move further to the calm waters of Anchar Lake we are in a totally different world, there is no crowd of boats, no motor boat engines to be heard and the mood is different altogether. Just a few meters ahead there is a little bitternunmindful of  the boat traffics. It stands motionless in the reeds waiting for frogs and other insects for its feed like a heron. This is a very shy bird and will vanish at the slightest difference. However it is accustomed to moving water traffic and is not bothered by it. However if a boats stops it gets alarmed. There are open lotus flowers around which the bees are humming collecting honey. Wagtails active and eager can be seen dashing from leaf to leaf sometimes leaping into air to catch that elusive creature for its morsel. The dipping motion of their longtails and their undulating flight is fascinating to watch. Kingfishers keep on diving into the lake and emerge successful sometimes dripping with droplets with litlle fish intheir beak. A small swimming bird much smaller than a duck is also seen and is known as grebe(podipus ruficollis). It dips at one place and emerges some meters away. The little grebe is fairly common in the vale. Common Pariah Kites (Milvus Migrans) are frequently seen soaring above the area. Near the Dal they perch on pillars looking for dead fish and other rubbish. They arescavenger birds and help clean the area. It is not necessary to have any special knowledge or equipment to enjoy birdwatching in and around the Dal Lake. An ordinary ride on a Shikara can provide an obervant mind with wonderful insights into the bird behaviour. All that is needed is love of nature, keen-eye lots of patience and appreciation

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night Time Essay Example

Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night Time Essay Composer’s use their text to portray concerns which they see valid to their own contextual society. They do this in order to illuminate specific events hardships or warnings which they believe are essentially important to the human’s existence. Mark Haddon’s composition of ‘The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time’ is lightly critical in portraying the concerns for society that Haddon holds and through his various and literary and dramatic techniques. Mark Haddon’s novel has accurately achieved his goal of installing knowledge in his audience. Haddon believes that the people of his society do not have a sufficient understanding of the troubles faced by those with a disability and here ‘The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time’ is used to inform the audience of these hardships. Haddon portrays the concept that simply treating someone with a disability differently will not help them but that an understanding of their life is the answer. Haddon has achieved this through the use of personalization and descriptive language â€Å"Christopher is getting a crap enough deal already† this highlights Haddon’s concern that people do not understand what people with disabilities must endure and hence are only making their lives worse. Haddon further portrays this knowledge through the use of irony showing how when kids get forced to ‘special schools’ for help it really only makes it worse, â€Å"†¦sometimes the children down the street†¦shout ‘special needs, special needs! †. We will write a custom essay sample on Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night Time specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night Time specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night Time specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This is used by Haddon to show to his audience that treating disabled people as ‘special’ and ‘different’ is wrong and that we must learn to understand that they are more similar than different. Haddon’s use of the novel has achieved his goal in expressing his concern to his audience. The great use of imagery and graphs provided the audience with the information of the importance and knowledge of just how Christopher’s life style really is with Asperger’s syndrome Mark Haddon expresses the importance of family relationships within society itself. He does this through the clear and perfect understanding of the deficiency and absence of love portrayed between his parents and himself. Christopher’s suffering of Asperser’s syndrome is transparent towards his parents as they find it difficult to react to Christopher’s behavior. Both parents had to deal with Christopher’s persistent obsession with mathematics, numbers (prime numbers used throughout the beginning of every chapter) as their son is a single minded human being with and extraordinary talent faced upon factual data that only he can obtain as many cannot. Christopher’s mother is an important factor among his life as he is told a lie from his father about his mother passing from cancer. But in fact from the hard troubled arguments from the relationship of his parents towards each other, Judy decides to leave without Christopher knowing. â€Å"I was not a very good mother, Christopher. Maybe if things had been different, maybe if you had been different, I might have been better at it. † This quote from his mother implies how she found it difficult to obtain Christopher’s life style as she wasn’t strong enough to do so. Throughout the novel Christopher’s relationship with his father becomes more distant as they lies have come out and the killing of an innocent dog. â€Å"Father said, â€Å"We all make mistakes, Christopher. You, me, your mother, everyone. And sometimes they’re really big mistakes. We’re only human. † Christopher continuingly disappoints both his parents’ attempts to parent him well as they do not abandon him. His father constantly attempts to set right their relationship towards Christopher as he faces his son’s silence. Christopher’s mother on the other hand does not take long to sort out her troubled priorities in London and chooses to take Christopher over the father. At the end of the novel the reader feels that Christopher will have the support of his parents for a very long time. The composer Haddon as used a great use of emotional and truthful knowledge among the society through Christopher’s case and this is achieved throughout the novel itself. Haddon persuades the important quality of Truth throughout the novel towards the direction of our society. Christopher’s obsession with truth is organized among the world through his perceptions on the basis. During the story as he feels secure, he needs order and certainty, and facts and logic provide this security. Christopher feels the need to be ‘scared’ and yet ‘shaky’ towards the things that didn’t happen which makes him feel insecure etc. ‘Metaphors’ are a language technique in which Christopher cannot understand. He believes metaphors bring lies towards society as they are false stories and fiction falls within the limits of lies. Christopher accepts ‘similes’ as this technique provides truthfulness and they also emphasize the appearance of what two things have in common. With the acceptation of hard facts within Christopher’s life he refuses to obtain the knowledge and believe of god and the afterlife. Christopher says that he ‘can’t tell lies’. This is the way he truthfully copes with life itself and the imaginary events which fill him with ‘the infinite number of things’. Christopher then pushes the boundaries of lying to himself through continuing the investigation when he told people for example his father he would stop. His father then tends to find out with the quote of â€Å"you knew exactly what you were doing†. During the novel we find out as well as Christopher that his mother is true in fact alive. This is a great impact among Christopher as he hates lying as he quotes â€Å"A lie is when you say something happened which didn’t happen. † Another quote is â€Å"I do not tell lies. Mother used to say that this was because I was a good person†¦it is because I can’t tell lies. † The repetition of ‘And’ creates a sense of comfort and security for Christopher as well as number of rituals. The great use of ‘And’ provides Christopher with the ability to recount every information he has accounted. As for me it is annoying to read but the fact that Christopher has a good memory for speech is observed. One of the rituals Christopher obsesses with is the observation of cars on the way to school as he organizes them into red meaning good and brown and yellow meaning bad. He implies this to his normal day routine. So if he sees a red car he will have a good/normal day but if he sees a brown or yellow he knows his day isn’t going to go too well. Mr. Jevons asked me whether this made me feel safe, having things always in nice order and I said I did† The justification he gives for using these rituals is formed on the ‘scared’ and ‘shaky’ responses which mean that his great need to impose order on a lack of a word is in use. Christopher believes telling the truth is an important aspect among lives as he is revealed that his fath er killed Wellington the dog and told him that his mother had passed which makes Christopher become very frightened of his father. Christopher flees in terror as he quotes â€Å"†¦he could murder me, because I couldn’t trust him, even though he said, ‘trust me’, because he had told a lie about a big thing† The composer achieves real aspects of telling the truth and telling a lie which happens on a normally daily basis. Mark Haddon achieves the knowledge of Asperger’s Syndrome throughout the novel and how it can be present towards a society/community. Christopher is an isolated individual who does not have friends. He sees ‘strangers’ whom he does not like because he has not met them before which some people in the society also believe in with or without the syndrome Christopher suffers. When he is strained and situated among many different people in the underground tunnel, Christopher feels the need to be stressed, alone, isolated to the point of having headaches as he reads signs which form different words in which confuse him. With the ability to travel by himself to London reveals that Christopher can cope with his anti-social behavior as he can keep it under control when necessary. Christopher knows this will happen as he is wanting to go to university with his ‘A level’ achievement in school and to have a career after that. This is a society with a bunch of people Christopher does not appear to know at all which pushes his boundaries. â€Å"And then I will get a First Class Honors Degree and I will become a scientist. † Christopher says. Christopher accepts the fact that he may be isolated and lonely but this does not affect his future he envisages for himself. Christopher creates his own world of society which he believes there are people who ‘are all special like me’ and these people also ‘like being on their own’. Christopher will gradually learn ways to function within a society but he must take many ‘first’ steps to achieve this. His dream is to live within a society whom will not judge nor criticize him as he wants to be himself. Mark Haddon includes many examples of which Christopher attempts to cope with a confusing world known as the society. These include graphs, lists, diagrams, flow charts and maps. All of these visual techniques give the reader the ability to see Christopher’s coping life style. Christopher’s confidence of truthful matter, in logic and facts, does not defend him from the real society. His many efforts to pursue the truth of Wellington’s murder results in the discovery of his understanding with the world as it is based on a lie. Christopher also learns that although he likes to have things â€Å"in a nice order†, real life is often very deranged, and he cannot always control this. By the end of the novel the composer achieves Christopher’s balance as he returns to normal life, he is regained both parents and has the knowledge that he has coped in difficult circumstances. Mark Haddon achieves the novel with great aspects of this and portrays the actual concerns among a society.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Free Essays on Cold War & American Defense Spending

The Soviet Union Lost the Cold War, but American Defense Spending did not Defeat it. A critical analysis of the Soviet Economy’s effect on the end of the Cold War Introduction The end of the Cold War is heralded as one of the defining moments of the 1980s. For all it grew to represent in its existence, its end was certainly a celebrated and monumental event. The Cold War commanded both Russian and American foreign policy for several years, as well as the minds of both countries’ leaders. As nuclear power became increasingly used, both governments began to fear one another- and from that fear came increased arms buildup. For both Americans and Russians, the fear of nuclear war was a reality. Later, as the war finally drew to a close in the late 1980s many theorists and scholars rushed to call a winner. In his book, How an Ordinary Man Became an Extraordinary Leader, Dinesh D’Souza pronounces Reagan the clear winner due to his hard line stance on foreign policy towards the USSR. However, upon critical inspection, one can see that this contention is false and not encompassing of key changes happening in Russia both before and during the war. The collapse of the Russian economy and the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev were the primary reasons that lead to end of the Cold War. Both of these factors were independent of any US foreign policy. Decline of the USSR The roots of the Soviet economic collapse pre-dated the Cold War. Long before Gorbachev rose to power, he observed that, â€Å"since the late 1950s certain difficulties began to be felt in [Russia’s] economic development.† According to the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) the annual growth of the Soviet Gross National Product (GNP) dropped from nearly four percent in the early sixties to less than three percent in the seventies. This percentage dropped to a mere two percent in the 1980s. Figures reported by the Soviets were higher but showed the same downward trend in ... Free Essays on Cold War & American Defense Spending Free Essays on Cold War & American Defense Spending The Soviet Union Lost the Cold War, but American Defense Spending did not Defeat it. A critical analysis of the Soviet Economy’s effect on the end of the Cold War Introduction The end of the Cold War is heralded as one of the defining moments of the 1980s. For all it grew to represent in its existence, its end was certainly a celebrated and monumental event. The Cold War commanded both Russian and American foreign policy for several years, as well as the minds of both countries’ leaders. As nuclear power became increasingly used, both governments began to fear one another- and from that fear came increased arms buildup. For both Americans and Russians, the fear of nuclear war was a reality. Later, as the war finally drew to a close in the late 1980s many theorists and scholars rushed to call a winner. In his book, How an Ordinary Man Became an Extraordinary Leader, Dinesh D’Souza pronounces Reagan the clear winner due to his hard line stance on foreign policy towards the USSR. However, upon critical inspection, one can see that this contention is false and not encompassing of key changes happening in Russia both before and during the war. The collapse of the Russian economy and the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev were the primary reasons that lead to end of the Cold War. Both of these factors were independent of any US foreign policy. Decline of the USSR The roots of the Soviet economic collapse pre-dated the Cold War. Long before Gorbachev rose to power, he observed that, â€Å"since the late 1950s certain difficulties began to be felt in [Russia’s] economic development.† According to the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) the annual growth of the Soviet Gross National Product (GNP) dropped from nearly four percent in the early sixties to less than three percent in the seventies. This percentage dropped to a mere two percent in the 1980s. Figures reported by the Soviets were higher but showed the same downward trend in ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Reaction of the article Groom Service Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Reaction of the article Groom Service - Essay Example As illustrated in the article, Bernard’s mother, Martha is strongly interested in Marie, Blanche’s child marrying her son. Bothe mothers have the same feeling that their children should marry and start a family. The main reason why these mothers want their children to marry each other is that each individual has great admiration for each other’s child. For instance, Bernard is the talk of the village because he is well groomed and is respectful. Each individual would envy to have a son in law like this wonderful son of Martha. On the hand, Marie is also admired for her good manners. Parents often observe their children as they grow up and they tend to admire certain behavior in them. Apart from observing their own children, the parents also observe other people’s children to see the features that make them outstanding in the society and admired by many people. Another notable aspect highlighted in the article is that the mothers often wish their children to inherit their disposition. That is, they want their children to behave like themselves. In as far as good morals are concerned, the mothers think that they are role models to their children. They represent good behavior and moral values. However, the mothers feel that their children should possess their fathers’ looks and personality. This will help them to create identity which will distinguish them from other people. Whilst the mothers they may play a pivotal role in influencing their children’s spouses, it can also be noted that it is not always the case that the children would have the same feelings towards then â€Å"chosen† people by their parents. As noted in the case of Bernard, he is more interested in Doris than Marie. Apparently, Doris is by far older than Bernard but he feels comfortable in her than in Marie whom he regards as young. Over and above, it can be noted that parents have certain expectations of their children

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Tesco and Sainsburys Websites Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Tesco and Sainsburys Websites - Coursework Example Tesco and Sainsbury are two giants in the retail business. The head quarter of the two supermarkets is in United Kingdom. However, they have branches in Europe, and Asia. The two companies specialise in food retailing. Tesco is the largest food retailer in United Kingdom. Its head quarter is in Hertfordshire. It operates about 2,318 stores in entire Europe and Asia. The European countries in which Tesco has its operations include Ireland, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, and Slovakia (Plunkett, 2007:76). The company has 82 and 60 stores in Ireland and Hungary respectively. In Poland, Tesco manages 66 hypermarkets and supermarkets. The countries that Tesco has extended its services in the Asian comprise of South Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Taiwan. Tesco offers both online and offline services. The services range from personal finance services to selling online. Tesco Personal Finance is a joint venture with the Royal Bank of Scotland (Zentes, et al, 2012:358). This service caters f or approximately 3.4 million customers for various financial services and products. The company has about 326,000 employees (Thomson, & Martin, 2010:549). This makes Tesco one of the biggest job creators in United Kingdom and all its branches of operation. In United Kingdom, Tesco operates under four banners. These banners comprise of Extra, Metro, Superstore, and express. Although the core business of Tesco is food retailing, it also sells non-food products such as clothing in its Superstores. The company also has runs petroleum products and it is in the list of one of the largest and independent petrol retailers. Tesco has registered an excellent performance in the recent years (Tesco, 2011:35). Sainsbury deals in retailing of foods and promotion of health eating. Sainsbury’s has been the largest leader in grocery retailing in United Kingdom. The goal of Sainsbury is to provide food to customers at fair prices. The company does not only stock foodstuffs but also clothing an d general merchandise (Hoover, 2004:176). Sainsbury operates under two banners. These include Jacksons Stores and JB Beaumont Hemming (Information Services, 2006:137). This paper looks at Tesco and Sainsbury’s websites. The paper will endeavour to identify the business model that each company employs and the target audiences. Tesco and Sainsbury’s websites are very crucial in order to understand retailing of food in United Kingdom. The two websites are and (Davenport, 2007:212). The core businesses of the two companies is specialising on foodstuffs. However, Tesco and Sainsbury sell non-food commodities such as clothes and petroleum products. The two companies have invested many funds in the development of their website to connect with their consumers (Seth & Randall, 2011:26). The management of these two companies understands that dissemination of information is very crucial for success of business venture. With the unparalleled era of techno logy expansion, the companies embrace online methods of reaching their consumers. They have created a strong database that keeps all the information that is relevant to their customers. Online services are not a complement to the offline ones, but an essential tool in the prosperity of the two companies. Competitor Analysis The two companies are big competitors in the retailing of foodstuffs. Tesco has flourished and out-competed the Sainsbury Company over time. This has led Tesco to emerge as a market leader in the foodstuff industry. The principle reason to explain Sainsbury’s poor performance is the relatively low operating profit margins (J Sainsbury plc, 2011:4). Several factors contribute to the low profit margins. These include specialisation on products with low margin profits, inefficiencies in controlling costs, and lack of value added through the chain of suppliers. The low profit margin leads to relatively low return on invested capital and return on equity ratios . This is despite lack

Monday, November 18, 2019

American Memory of Holocaust Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

American Memory of Holocaust - Essay Example In the first decades after the war, Holocaust was quite trivial in both the American and the Jews consciousness (Novick, 1994). Many scholars suggest that the Holocaust awareness by most Americans was based on inaccurate, trivial, and vague representations. The Jews extermination was remembered in important ways such as through the Nuremberg trials, Second World War accounts, comparisons with the Soviet totalitarianism, philosophical works, Jewish and Christian reflections in theology, mass-media portrayals, and scholarly pioneering publications. These attempts in the postwar period to understand the Jewish tragedy in the prevailing cultural paradigms offered the foundation for the consequent comprehension of that event (Baron, 2003). In the late 1960s and 1970s, American memory of the Holocaust moved to a central position. The curve of memory slope may differ, but it is not steadily downward. The most vivid memory is the immediate aftermath of the Holocaust events that declined with the passage of time. With the Holocaust, it has been apparent social amnesia, virtual silence for an entire generation, then, the Rostovian move into self-sustained growth in the late 1960s and 1970s. For close to 20 years after the Second World War, Holocaust was largely ignored, and today, it is elaborated in the repression language. The Gentile guilt and the Jewish agony were too huge to be confronted. The very silence is often viewed as a testimony of the amount of feeling/sentiment that was being repressed (Novick, 1994). It is important to note that Holocaust became important in the American Jewish life â€Å"only after the Eichmann trial, Israel’s 1967 triumph in the Six-Day War, and the surprise attack by Egypt and costly victory by Israel in the 1973 Yom Kippur War† (Baron, 2003, p62). 3.B. The comic book â€Å"Maus: A Survivor’s Tale (1986)† subtitled as â€Å"My Father Bleeds History† was written by Spiegelman. The comic book narrates two stories; one story is about Artie’s current relationship with Vladek (his father) in Queens, New York. The other story is about the experiences of his parents during the occupation of Nazi in Poland. The text is preoccupied by the question of how Artie (or any other individual in the second generation) can come to possess their parents’ experiences, experiences they never witnessed. Towards the culmination of the first volume, Vladek and Artie are walking when Vladek bends over a trash container and takes an old piece of wire (Landsberg, 1997). Artie asks Vladek why he picked up the wire, Vladek responds by saying that inside the wire are other little wires, and they are good for trying things. Infuriated, Arties asks his father why he always picks up trash and why he cannot buy his own wires. Vladek responds by saying that why one has to buy if he can find some, and that the wires cannot be found in stores. He goes on to tell him that the wires he has picked are very useful. This scene involving Artie and Vladek functions as the metaphor for what the text itself does. The wire recirculation becomes an allegory for the Holocaust recirculation through a different medium. In this case, the recirculation is done by a comic book and this indicates that when the narrative is put into a different medium, new possibilities, and new insights appear (Landsberg, 1997). In this representation, the main theme is recirculation of the Holocaust. The recirculation of the wire serves as a metaphor for the potential value of the Holocaust in the American nation. It becomes a means

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Impact Of Spanish Colonization

The Impact Of Spanish Colonization The days were long and arduous and the ships sailed for hours hoping to discover something, they became impatient and discouraged and was at the merge of giving up, then suddenly out into the sea they there was the sight of land grounds, Look ahead men, its landIM AFRAID THIS IS PERHAPS A NEW WORLD! A seaman named Christopher Columbus became obsessed with the possibility to pioneering a western sea route and the gold and spice islands of Asia. Taking that in great consideration Columbus and his men arrived in the new world for three simple reasons, Gold, God and Glory. Many believed that there was limited source of gold and so the amount of gold an empire had determined how rich their economy was. Europeans alleged at that time, the world was a flat surface but however Columbus challenged that principle. He thought to himself that the world was round and wanted to prove his theory and obtain great riches for and spices hence the reason he wanted to set sailed with his men, hoping to discover India. India was known for its glorious gold and riches. Columbus formulated a theory called the Enterprise of the Indies and since India was known for its many resources, he thought that it was profitable to use the sea route to get there. It was suggested that passing on land routes included payments of many taxes and so decided it take such alternative. The trip therefore had to be sponsored but unfortunately he was rejected several times by the king and queen of Spain. He tried convincing them that he would discover great possessions that would enhance their economy and that he would also spread their religion of Christianity, but his efforts were to no avail. However, that was until after the Spanish conquest of the Moorish kingdom of Granada in January 1492. The Spanish monarchs, flush with victory, and so agreed to support his voyage. In this essay I will examine both the mayor reasons for the Spanish arrival in the new world and analyze the impacts that their coloni zation had on the indigenous people in Trinidad and Tobago. To acquire gold, spread the word of god and accomplish glory, were indeed the most important reasons for the Spanishs arrival in the new world. In Columbus times gold was very limited and a wealthy nation would be determined by the amount of gold its economy owned. Columbus wanted to provide evidence that the world was indeed round and that he could sail to obtain the immense riches of India to return to his country. However on doing so he discovered land that was referred to as the new world, this is known today as the Caribbean and North, South and Central America. On arriving at the land, to Columbus astonishment, it was in fact an existing world. Therefore the Spanish were obviously not the first set of people to discover the new world and was not the first settlers there. Different types of indigenous people were the primary settlers that journeyed to the Caribbean. They were great hunters and to obtain food would hunt animals to consume. However with diverse weather conditions animals tend to migrate a lot to find an environment that suits them best. Parallel to this, the indigenous groups migrated a lot in search of food and so as a result settled in the Caribbean and Americas. Two sets of these indigenous tribes that remained in Trinidad were called the Tanios and the Kalinagos. They had unique cultures and lifestyles from that of the Spanish. Luckily the Spanish was worshipped by the Amerindians because they saw them as Gods. This was so because of the white complexion of their skin and they were immediately welcomed. The natives thought that if they serve them with whatever they desired they would be richly blessed since they were Gods. The Spanish soon after started controlling the groups of indigenous tribes. They forced them to work for no pay and soon there freedom was taken away from them. Their lands and riches were possessed by the Spanish settlers and they enslaved the Amerindians. The word of God was a very important factor to the Spanish and they took their religion of Christianity very seriously. The Spanish settlers religious beliefs were also extended to the indigenous people and they were forced not to practice their own culture. Their religion of Christianity was made compulsory and the natives were forced to speak their language. There traditional religious beliefs were stamped out and were replaced by Christianity. The Spanish believed that once they had the ability to make someone reject their own god and worship theirs, they would have great control over that person and so that is exactly what they did to the Amerindians. Once their religion was delivered to the world, the Spanishs empire would be exceedingly contented and so they achieved a main reason for their arrival. Another reason the settlers came was to obtain glory, this however summarizes some aspects which includes land, power and wealth and so Spain became flooded with magnificence and wealth after conquering the new lands. European nations became wealthier because of the precious metals such as gold and diamonds that they obtained from the new world. They cultivated many lands and produced large amounts of harvest; they enslaved the Amerindians and offered no pay at all. Spain gained great power and prestige; they dominated the Americas and possessed a vast amount of land and wealth. The country reined for a very long time after Columbus discoveries, bringing jealousy to other countries. To the Europeans, the widespread of their Christianity beliefs was named very well for them. Columbus voyages was a great beginning for Europeans, it made them explore even more. Trading exportations of large quantities of goods and raw materials was available along with other positive features. The Ameri ndians had also introduced tobacco, corn and cassava to the Spanish. They acquired and learned great skills from the Amerindians, for example how to build their houses to withstand hurricanes. After the voyages, few negative effects were also bought to the Europeans nations. This included lots of jealousy and rivalry among European nations which caused many wars. The Europeans also obtained diseases such as yellow fever and malaria from the Amerindians resulting in many deaths. The Spanish colonization however had major negative impacts on the indigenous people that settled in Trinidad such as the decrease of the population, family separation, starvation and the lost of their culture and tradition. The most prominent amongst them all was genocide and annihilation. The indigenous population decreased drastically after being enslaved by the Spanish. The Amerindians, were killed in the defensive wars they undertook against the Spanish to preserve their freedom. They lost battles to the Spanish and died rapidly because their weapons were made from bones, stones and shells and so they could not have competed with that of the Spanish. The Spanish had in possession, more superior arms and weapons that included guns, canons, dangerous explosives and gunpowder and was successful in dominating the indigenous people. Some also died from many European diseases such as small pox, measles and influenza. Because the indigenous people were not immune to these diseases they became exceedingly ill and consequentially they eventually died. Being enslaved, some natives were separated from their families, which caused a major breakdown. They were not familiar with the nature of work and unknown lifestyle forced onto them by the Spanish and the harsh treatments received so this resulted in a great loss of the population. The Amerindians were also fatalistic and believed when bad things happened, the Gods were against them and seeing that they saw the Europeans as gods, as stated earlier, some committed suicide since they were treated so ruthlessly. Others, after being brutally enslaved and submitted to a meager diet of cassava and sweet potatoes, died from malnutrition and overwork in the mines or plantations. They died from starvation because they were not liberated to obtain the food they would normally consume. They were starved and treated as slaves. The indigenous people were also used for sport purposes by the Spanish. The Spanish saw them as lesser bodies and so to test the sharpness of ones blade or weapon, they would cut off the neck of an Amerindian. Some also committed infanticide. Others ran away to other island where they could be concealed while some just surrendered. Another major impact that the Spanish colonization had on the indigenous people was the lost of their culture and tradition. After being taken over by the Spanish settlers they were stripped of their unique cultures. It was on Columbus third voyage he discovered Trinidad. The two groups of indigenous people that survived in Trinidad, the Tanios and Kalinagos had different characteristics and so those features were abolished after being forced to live by another way of life. The arawaks, sub group of the tanios were the first set of people discovered by Spanish and was seen as very peaceful and sedentary beings. The arawaks, short, copper colored, having long black and straight hair, survived from agriculture, hunting and fishing, they grew a soft variety of corn and sweet potato. They also knew how to make cassava bread using an elaborate process to leach out the poisonous juice of its roots. The arawaks society was simply a very calm culture The Arawaks society was basically a very calm culture. It was classed into contentment, friendliness and was a highly organized paternal society. Each society contained a small kingdom and every kingdom had a leader, call a cacique. At the time when Columbus arrived, there were five different kingdoms, all was then in fact divided separated and dismantled. The culture of the arwaks involved having two or three wives and the cacique had about thirty. Women enjoyed a materially superior lifestyle being the wife of the cacique and also their children were held in high esteem. The religious myths of the arawaks were polytheists and their Gods were called ZEMIS. Religious practices of the zemis included worshiping and obeisance to the zemis themselves accompanying dancing and took place in the village courts during special festivals. Medicine men or priest also consulted the zemis for advice and healing, this was also done in public cerem onies with songs and dances. The Europeans however took away those valuable practices and cultures from them after conquering their lands. They forced them to abide by their rules and regulations and stripped their way of life viciously. The tanios have now totally disappeared from the surface of the earth. The other group of indigenous people that was found in Trinidad was the caribs, a sub group of the Kalingao tribe. This tribe had olive skin, long straight hair and was a handsome people of great stature. Their foreheads and noses were flat since they flattened their heads, believing it to be a sign of beauty and perfection. They were not farmers but however great fishermen. Their religious beliefs involved abstaining from pigs, salt and turtles were practiced. Human sacrifices were also part of these rituals. Their culture was also somewhat of the arawaks. They had a head chief called the ubutu, who was selected because of strength and skill. Their manner was quite fierce and warlike. When conquered by the Spanish these indigenous people was also enslaved and they were also forced to live their lifestyle. Nevertheless, some people of this tribe still exist today in parts of the world and their culture has therefore survived to some extent. Life has changed dramatically for the carib people who traditionally are shy and retiring. However, many feel that they currently do not receive the attention they deserve and are vigilant in their determination not to suffer from exploitation; a fate that has bedeviled many indigenous peoples throughout the world. The Spanish colonization indeed impacted negatively on the indigenous peoples depletion and it also resulted in lost of their culture. Conversely, few positive impacts was also accomplished and introduced to the Amerindians. Technology was introduced to them by the Spanish for instance, ship building, also the skills of using navigational instruments. In addition to that European crops were bought in like banana, wheat, rice, coffee and olive. Animals were also imported such as horses, cows, pigs and chicken. The Spanish are not only the cause of the whipping out of the indigenous tribe but also plays an important role in the development of Trinidad. The Spanish governor who made the most significant impression on Trinidad was Don Jose Marla Chacon, after whom the national flower, the chaconia has been named. Chocon was an astute administrator who settled in many depute, declared Port of Spain the captial city of Trinidad today and also initiated development in the more remote parts of the island. Today many Spanish names of places exits in Trinidad, these include Rio-Claro, San-Fernando, Santa Flora, Santa Rosa, Barataria and many more. The language of the Spanish still exists and is officially the second language of Trinidad and Tobago. Some Amerindian names also exist as well in Trinidad today for example, Caura which means heavily wooded valley and Caroni. These two places are fun for its fascinating places of interest. There is the Caura River which is an interesting place to visit for recreational purposes. The Caroni Bird Sanctuary is known for the view of wonderful birds of numerous characteristics. There is also the Caroni Swamp which is also a historical place of interest in Trinidad. The history of the Spanish Colonization is indeed a unique aspect of our culture today. COMMENTS: .